Difference between revisions of "Overclocking"

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{{note|This might damage your equipment or may result in a unstable system, so do this at your own risk!}}
{{warning|1= There is the possibility of damaging your equipment by overclocking. Do so at your own risk!}}
{{note|This page is incomplete, you're welcome to improve it.}}
{{hint|This page is incomplete, you're welcome to improve it.}}
{{note|Overclocked devices may seem stable but crash occasionally and be hard to debug. A good test suite needs to be found to properly test the entire functionality of overclocked devices to properly ensure stability}}
{{hint|All information regarding clock speeds, voltages and more are stored in the DTB (Device Tree Blob). You can learn more about it [https://elinux.org/Device_Tree_Reference here].}}
{{hint|All information regarding clock speeds, voltages and more are stored in the DTB (Device Tree Blob). You can learn more about it [https://elinux.org/Device_Tree_Reference here].}}


Overclocking is a way to get more and better performance out of the system by running it at higher clock speeds than the factory default.
Overclocking is a way to get more performance out of the system by running it at higher clock speeds than the factory default, usually while putting out more heat and using more power (You can also downclock to possibly reduce power consumption and thermals at the cost of performance). It is highly recommended that you avoid overvolting the device, as that has a high risk of damaging the hardware, hence the warning at the beginning of this page. However, just some slight overclocks without the added voltage can not only improve performance, but not carry as much risk (Still: Do at your own risk!). It should be noted however that overclocking can cause instability, so you will need to test and see what values work best with your device (There is a silicon lottery for the Pinephone's hardware).


= Preparation =
= A64-based devices =
TODO, requires a compatible cross compiler (usually aarch64-linux-gnu), and clone the pine64 kernel repository.


Then after that just setup the variables for make.
{{note|These instructions are targeting the Pinephone to simplify the explanation, however they can be used to also overclock other devices such as the Pinetab if you modify the proper DTB files.}}
 
== Editing the Pinephone DTS ==
 
In order to overclock the Pinephone you will have to first convert the DTB file in <code>/boot/dtbs/allwinner/</code> to a DTS file. You will see <code>sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dtb</code>, and also two other files with different pinephone mainboard revisions (1.1 and 1.0). You will want to select the correct file for your pinephone (Only choose 1.1 if you have a braveheart, As all other consumer pinephones use the 1.2 DTS).
 
Once you've found the file, you can run the following command to convert the DTB to DTS:
<code>dtc -I dtb -O dts /boot/dtbs/allwinner/sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dtb -o /boot/dtbs/allwinner/sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dts</code>
 
Finally, modify the newly converted .dts file and change the clockspeeds you wish to modify. You can simply use a text editor to do so.
 
To convert back to DTB:
<code>dtc -I dts -O dtb /boot/dtbs/allwinner/sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dts -o /boot/dtbs/allwinner/sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dtb</code>
 
Afterwards you can simply reboot and check with <code>sudo cat /sys/kernel/debug/clk/clk_summary</code> to see if the changes have correctly applied.
 
{{note|In the future it is possible that someone may make a driver to adjust clockspeeds of the A64 from userspace (using a config file) without the need to recompile. However, currently the only way to overclock is to either compile your own kernel, or modify just the DTB (instructions above).}}


= A64-based boards =
== GPU ==
== GPU ==
Open <code>arch/arm64/boot/dts/allwinner/sun50i-a64.dtsi</code> in a text editor.


Look for
Open <code>/boot/dtbs/allwinner/sun50i-a64-pinephone-1.2.dts</code> (You will have to find the source of the kernel used by your distribution. There is the Pine64 kernel, and Megi's) in a text editor following these instructions: https://wiki.pine64.org/wiki/Overclocking#Edit_Pinephone_DTS


<nowiki>
Look for <code>mali: gpu@1c4000 {</code> and within that block search for <code>assigned-clock-rates = <432000000>;</code>
mali: gpu@1c40000 {
compatible = "allwinner,sun50i-a64-mali", "arm,mali-400";
reg = <0x01c40000 0x10000>;
interrupts = <GIC_SPI 97 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 98 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 99 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 100 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 102 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 103 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>,
    <GIC_SPI 101 IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH>;
interrupt-names = "gp",
  "gpmmu",
  "pp0",
  "ppmmu0",
  "pp1",
  "ppmmu1",
  "pmu";
clocks = <&ccu CLK_BUS_GPU>, <&ccu CLK_GPU>;
clock-names = "bus", "core";
resets = <&ccu RST_BUS_GPU>;


assigned-clocks = <&ccu CLK_GPU>;
The <code>assigned-clock-rates</code> line should be set to <code>432000000</code>, this means that the GPU is clocked at 432MHz by default. So if you want 500MHz, set the value to <code>500000000</code>.
assigned-clock-rates = <432000000>;
};
</nowiki>


The <code>assigned-clock-rates</code> line is set to <code>432000000</code>, this means that the GPU is clocked at 432MHz. So if you want 500MHz, set the value to <code>500000000</code>.
Save the dts file, and recompile the DTB. In order to check if the overclock was successfully applied you can run: <code>sudo cat /sys/kernel/debug/clk/clk_summary</code>.


Save the dtsi file, and recompile the DTB.
{{note|The file may be slightly different and you may need to enter the values as hexidecimals}}
{{hint|The GPU appears to run stable overclocked to 560 Mhz, however more testing with a wider group of devices is needed.}}
{{hint|Remember to run a benchmark tool (such as glmark2-es2) to help check stability.}}


{{note|Danct12 has found on his Pinetab that 562 MHz is the limit for stable operation.}}
== CPU ==
{{note|Remember to run a benchmark tool (such as glmark2-es2) to make sure that it's stable! If it's not, then lower the clock speed until you can get a stable clock speed.}}


== CPU ==
The stock speed of the A64 is 1.152 GHz. It is not recommended to the overclock the CPU because doing so greatly increases power and thermals and will overheat the device for little to no gain.
TODO


== DRAM ==
== DRAM ==


{{note|It is not recommended to exceed 672 MHz clockspeed on the DRAM.}}
{{warning|1=It is not recommended to exceed 667 MHz clockspeed on the DRAM. 624MHz is likely the upper limit.}}
{{hint|Make sure to set your DRAM to a multiple of 24.}}
 
When overclocking the GPU, it is a good idea to also overclock the DRAM, as the main bottleneck of the A64 SOC is the memory. The A64's maximum ram clockspeed falls just short of 667MHz. This may be unstable on your device however.
 
Around 600 MHz (PC-1200) should work fine, however some people have reported instability at lower clockspeeds. Arch Linux Arm uses a default clockspeed of 552MHz, with uboot builds available to easily switch out for a higher (624) or lower (492) DRAM clockspeed.
 
It is possible that by reverse engineering the DRAM driver from allwinner that auto tuning can be accomplished to get the best performance.
 
Setting the DRAM clock is accomplished by modifying pinephone_defconfig in uboot (https://gitlab.com/pine64-org/u-boot/-/blob/crust/configs/pinephone_defconfig)
 
You can find simple instructions on doing so here: [[Uboot]]
 
== VPU ==
 
In order to allocate more VRAM for the GPU you can add <code>cma=256</code> to your kernel (or use kconfig with CONFIG_CMA_SIZE_MBYTES=256) cmdline in boot.scr which you will have to compile using mkimage. By default the kernel allocates only 64MB, and the maximum value is 256MB.
 
In order to compile boot.scr you can run <code>mkimage -C none -A arm64 -T script -d boot.cmd boot.scr</code>
 
{{note|You may not have a boot.cmd file in your boot directory and instead you may instead have a boot.txt}}
 
== Cedrus ==
 
Overclocking cedrus is achieved by modifying the kernel source code: https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/drivers/staging/media/sunxi/cedrus/cedrus.c#L507
 
{{note|I'm (33yn2) not particularly sure if this makes any difference, or if it might infact have a negative impact. Probably not worth messing with.}}
 
= RK3399-based devices =
The RK3399 clocks are found in [https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3399-opp.dtsi arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3399-opp.dtsi]
 
More optimised voltages and clocks can be found in [https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3399-op1-opp.dtsi arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3399-op1-opp.dtsi]
These include a slight overclock and undervolt, they are intended for the OP1 CPU found in many chromebooks but have worked fine in all recorded cases on regular RK3399 SOCs in other devices.
 
==GPU==
Any clock speeds can be added for the GPU in <code>gpu_opp_table</code>
 
The highest recommended voltage for the GPU is 1.2V as specified in the RK3399 schematic from Rockchip.
 
Segfault has found that the RK3399 in his Pinebook Pro can reach 950MHz on the GPU while being stable.
 
The stock speed for the GPU is 800Mhz.
 
Note that the GPU in the RK3399 is already bottlenecked by the memory bandwidth available to it, so overclocking generally yields no improvements.
 
==CPU==
A set of available clock speeds that can be added to the CPU clusters can be found in <code>drivers/clk/rockchip/clk-rk3399.c</code> under <code>rk3399_cpuclkl_rates</code> for the little cores and <code>rk3399_cpuclkb_rates</code> for the big cores.
 
These clock speeds can be added to <code>cluster0_opp</code> for the small cores and <code>cluster1_opp</code> for the big cores respectively.
 
The maximum limit is 1.8GHz on the little cores and 2.2GHz on the big cores.
 
The highest recommended voltage for the little cores is 1.2V and for the big cores is 1.25V.
 
Segfault has found that the RK3399 in his Pinebook Pro can reach 1.7GHz on the little cores and 2.08GHz on the big ones.
 
The stock speed for the little cores is 1.4GHz and on the big cores it is 1.8GHz, the OP1 speeds default to 1.5GHz and 2.0GHz instead.
 
= ROCK64 =
 
DTB is in <code>/boot/dtbs/rockchip/rk3328-rock64.dtb</code>. CPU clock rates are inside <code>opp_table0</code> as hexadecimal numbers in the <code>opp-hz</code> field.
 
Check the achieved clock speed with <code>sudo cat /sys/kernel/debug/clk/clk_summary | grep armclk</code>. Does not seem to overclock at stock voltages at all, defaults to 408 MHz if it fails to set a clock rate. Stock voltage is 1.30V, just shy of the 1.35V maximum outlined in [https://www.rockchip.fr/RK3328%20datasheet%20V1.1.pdf the datasheet]. Overvolting to 1.325V just left the device in an unbootable state for CounterPillow, would not recommend.


When overclocking the GPU, it is a good idea to also overclock the DRAM, as the main bottleneck of the A64 SOC is the memory.
GPU needs investigating, but current mainline device tree does not try to clock up the GPU at all.


= Rockchip =
[[Category:SOPine]] [[Category:Pine A64]] [[Category:Pine H64]] [[Category:A64-LTS]] [[Category:PineBook]] [[Category:PinePhone]] [[Category:PineTab]] [[Category:Rock64]] [[Category:PineBook Pro]] [[Category:ROCKPro64]] [[Category:Allwinner A64]] [[Category:Allwinner H6]] [[Category:Rockchip RK3399]]
TODO
{{note|TuxThePenguin has found that the RK3399 in his Pinebook Pro can reach 950MHz on the GPU while being stable, 1GHz was tried but crashed instantly.}}
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