PinePhone Installation Instructions
This section has generic installation instructions. Please see the PinePhone Software Releases section for specific installation instructions for each distribution.
The default PinePhone boot priority is first the SD card and then the eMMC so inserting your own SD card with your preferred release will result in the phone booting your image.
Installation to the microSD
To install an image to the microSD card:
- Download your chosen image from PinePhone Software Releases
- Extract the compressed file
- Write the image to your SD card, see below
- Plug SD card into phone
- Boot phone
If you need step-by-step instructions for writing an image to an SD card, check the NOOB guide, then return to this page.
Flashing the microSD
Make sure to select the correct device using
lsblk. Then run dd with the correct device:
sudo dd if=pine.img of=/dev/[DEVICE] bs=1M status=progress conv=fsync
Make sure to select the correct device using
lsblk. Then run bmaptool with the correct device:
Download the .img.xz and the .img.bmap files, then run
bmaptool copy --bmap image.bmap image.xz /dev/[DEVICE]. This takes around 2.5 minutes to flash a 4 Gb file.
Using graphical tools
GUI applications such as Etcher and GNOME Disks can be used to flash the MicroSD too.
Installation to the eMMC
The internal eMMC flash storage can be flashed using the Jumpdrive utility by Danct12 and Martijn from postmarketOS. This utility boots from micro SD and exposes the internal eMMC flash storage when the PinePhone is connected to a computer. The process of flashing an OS to the exposed and mounted eMMC is identical to that of any other storage medium - e.g. a SD card. You can use the 'DD' command or a utility such as Etcher or Gnome Disks, etc.
Latest Jumpdrive can be found here.
- Download and extract the Jumpdrive image
- Flash the Jumpdrive image to a micro SD card
- Boot the PinePhone from the Jumpdrive micro SD card
- Connect the PinePhone to your computer using USB-A -> USB-C cable
- Flash the exposed PinePhone drive (e.g. /dev/mm..., check for the right device in dmesg, GNOME disks, or similar, and make sure it's unmounted) with your chosen OS image
- Once the flashing process is complete, disconnect the PinePhone from your PC, power it down and remove the Jumpdrive SD card
- The process is now finished, and you can boot from eMMC
The Jumpdrive image is smaller than 50MB. You can keep an SD card specifically for using Jumpdrive, and there are 64MB micro SD cards sold cheaply that will suffice. Jumpdrive also acts as a rescue image in case if you messed up your installation. To do so, you can telnet to 172.16.42.1, mount rootfs and fix it!
From the booted microSD OS
- Flash an OS to the SD card (and optionally resize the partition, see below)
- Insert SD card and boot the phone
- Download the desired OS' image on the booted OS or transfer it to the SD card
- Extract the image file if it is archived
- Flash the image file to eMMC using
dd if=new-pinephone-image.img of=/dev/mmcblkX bs=1M status=progress conv=fsyncwhere X is the number label of the eMMC (of the disk, not the partition!). Use the command lsblk to check your devices: typically with the current kernel the SD card is /dev/mmcblk0 and the eMMC is /dev/mmcblk2 but as always with dd be extremely cautious to get the devices correct.
- Turn off phone, remove SD card and then turn on the phone.
From the booted microSD OS (risky)
- Prepare a new SD card, flash desired OS to the SD card
- Boot the phone with your new SD card image
- Within the booted OS, flash/clone the running OS to eMMC, e.g. using dd. It will take about 15 minutes (depending on the speed of your card), and in the end it may show an error about not enough space - just ignore it.
- Turn off phone, take out SD card, and try booting the phone which should load up the new OS from eMMC.
- Open terminal and resize partition to fill up entire disk (see below).
SD to eMMC via installer
postmarketOS installer images booted from SD card will simply ask the user, if they want to install to eMMC. The feature lives in the distro-agnostic calamares-extensions repository (see calamares-extensions#7), so other distributions might adopt this in the future.
Resize partition to fit disk space
Once you've flashed the OS to your SD card or eMMC storage, you may also need to expand the partition to fill all the available space.
Resize SD card's partition using computer
For SD cards, insert the SD card and resize the partitions through the computer. For eMMC, insert the phone cable and use Jumpdrive to access the eMMC directly, and resize the partition after flashing the image. To do the flashing you have two options:
Install growpart and run:
growpart /dev/mmcblkX Y resize2fs /dev/mmcblkXpY
where X is the storage device and Y is the partition number (viewable from lsblk).
If you get any errors about missing or unknown commands, use apt-cache search to find and install the needed software. Also don't forget to use sudo.
Parted's interactive mode and resize work well together. Do this before you put your SD card into the PinePhone for the first time for best results.
sudo parted /dev/<your_sd_card_device> (parted) resizepart 2 100% (parted) quit sudo resize /dev/<the_second_sd_card_PARTITION>
Resize from within PinePhone
eMMC: you would need to resize the partition on eMMC (flashed with the operating system) by booting another image from the SD card: that way, the eMMC will be unmounted. It is not recommended to resize eMMC while booted from eMMC! Resizing a currently mounted partition can have weird results. If you booted from the SD card, you can follow the above guidelines on how to resize from a computer.
SD card: It is generally not possible to boot from eMMC to partition the unmounted SD card, because of the boot order - you would have to write the image to the empty SD card first, then resize partition, all without rebooting. It is also not recommended to resize the SD card while booted from SD card! Resizing a currently mounted partition can have weird results.
Reuse SD card for data storage on system booting from eMMC
Once you have installed your release of choice to eMMC, you may wish to use an SD card for data storage. If you choose to re-use a card you have previously used to boot from, you will find your phone will not boot if you just reformat the card and insert it. This is because the Allwinner firmware in the PinePhone uses some (normally) unused space at the front of the SD card to store boot software, which you need to clear.
This can be done as follows on any linux system:
to check the device of your SD card – as an example lets assume it is /dev/mmcblk0 then
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=8k seek=1 count=4
will clear the relevant sectors of your card.